The summary of the monograph is submitted in the Russian and English languages, the text – only in Russian.
«Second geology – science about technogenic bodies of the lithosphere»
At the present stage technogenic transformation of the earth's crust becomes one of the major factors of formation of the future existence of people and all other organisms populating our planet. The character of the technogenesis of the lithosphere has changed significantly. During previous historical epochs human was limited to the earth’s substances from it that was necessary for its existence. Now, under the cumulative influence of various activities, the structure of earth's crust has changed step by step. On increasing scales artificial formations influence its structure
– technogenic geological bodies.
At the same time, one has to consider accumulations of new ground areas along marine coast,
variation of structure of rocks in response to the extraction of slate gas and oil,
variation of the geological structure of territory at establishment of megacities.
In the majority of cases this is accompanied by decreasing strength of the underground environment.
This results in the occurrence of various sorts of dangerous phenomena of exogenous geodynamics
(landslips, collapses, failures, and even technogenic earthquakes).
Injury of integrity of the earth's crust quite often creates a pollution of environments.
Теchnogenic lithospheric transformation of biogeochemical cycles shows to which degree
the biosphere is a uniform system of dynamically interacting elements.
The further growing scales of technogenesis of lithosphere will inevitably lead
to the occurrence of new geopolitical problems.
Already now erection of some artificial islands is a reason for international conflicts.
Technogenic transformation of lithosphere is, with regard to its character, conditions and timescales, essentially distinct from natural geological processes. Like any new subject of scientific research, it requires for its study the development of a separate scientific discipline, which, due to the secondary processes of artificial transformation of the earth's crust, can be designated as a second geology.
It must be mentioned that the terminus has been used earlier for the scientific activities which accompany the processing and the repeated use of raw materials which were deposited earlier as rubbish in the lithosphere.
In the monograph the subject matter of the second geology is understood significantly more widely and includes all types of technogenic bodies that are directly or indirectly formed in the earth's crust and on its surface as result of human activity. At the present stage the process of technogenic transformation of the lithosphere, though it is visible everywhere has not yet resulted in irreversible catastrophic variations of the environment. Therefore, right now it is important to explore the general laws of its progress and to develop mechanisms to manage it. The objective of the present work consists in creation of conceptually-methodological bases of this activity. When writing it, an extensive array of disparate materials characterizing technogenic geological bodies of various types was generalized and subjected to system analysis. A classification of technogenic geological bodies is developed. Laws of their formation, transformation, influence on ecological conditions and social relations, possible influence on geopolitical problems are investigated. The indispensability of system management of the technogenesis of the lithosphere is proved.
Keywords: technogenesis of the earth's crust, anthropocene, bowels of the earth, geological environment, hazardous geological processes, natural-technical system.
Bibliography: 827 references
|Click on the link to download the monograph in russian language:|| file
|CHAPTER I. TECHNOGENIC GEOLOGICAL BODIES||11|
|1.1. Technogenesis geological environment and technogenic bodies of lithosphere||11|
|1.2. Hierarchy of manifestations of technogenesis of the earth's crust||21|
|1.3. Relevance, object of the investigations and a goals second geology||24|
|1.4. Formation and transformation of technogenic bodies||36|
|1.5. Types of technogenic geological bodies (structures)||45|
|CHAPTER II. TECHNOGENESIS OF THE LITHOSPHERE AND ITS ECOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS||70|
|2.1. Lithosphere, biosphere and biotechnosphere as the areas of formation of the technogenic bodies||70|
|2.2. Georesource ecological function of lithosphere||74|
|2.2.1. Transformation of georesource ecological function in the process of technogenesis of the earth's crust||74|
|2.2.2. Material aspect georesource ecological functions||76|
|2.2.3. Topical aspect georesource ecological functions||79|
|2.3. Geodynamic ecological function of lithosphere||82|
|2.3.1. Main types of geodynamic processes and their significance||82|
|2.3.2. Endogenous geodynamics||83|
|2.3.3. Exogenous geodynamics||93|
|2.4. Geochemical ecological function of lithosphere||115|
|2.4.1. The role of technogenic bodies in the formation of environment chemism||115|
|2.4.2. Technogenic minerals and technogenic rocks||117|
|2.4.3. Technogenic geochemical (biogeochemical) barriers||122|
|2.4.4. Technogenic geochemical and biogeochemical anomalies (province)||126|
|2.4.5. Disruption of geochemical (biogeochemical) cycles as result of formation and transformation of technogenic bodies||131|
|2.5. Geophysical ecological function of lithosphere||139|
|2.5.1. Significance and basic forms of geophysical influences, caused by formation of technogenic bodies in the earth's crust||139|
|2.5.2. Transformation of natural geophysical fields and protection from underground sources of physical pollution||142|
|2.5.3. Technogenic bodies – sources of physical influences||149|
|2.6. Influence of technogenic geological bodies on ecological functions of lithosphere||153|
|CHAPTER III. TECHNOGENIC GEOLOGICAL BODIES OF MINING ENTERPRISES AND OIL FIELDS||155|
|3.1. Processes of formation and the basic types||155|
|3.2. Tailing ponds and slime ponds||161|
|3.3. Mining dumps and terricones||165|
|3.4. Oil-field technogenic bodies||173|
|CHAPTER IV. TRUNKS AND DEEP TECHNOGENIC GEOLOGICAL BODIES||183|
|4.1. Processes of formation and the basic types||183|
|4.2. Technogenic geological bodies formed as result of drilling, exploitation and liquidation (conservation) of oil and gas wells||185|
|4.3. Deep fracking bodies formed at development oil-and-gas slate deposits||200|
|4.4. Deep technogenic bodies formed by using technologies of underground coal gasification and underground coal burning, as well as at underground waste incineration||206|
|4.5. Technogenesis of lithosphere caused by exploitation geothermal power stations and heat supply systems||215|
|4.6. Technogenic geological bodies formed at the construction and exploitation of mines and on post exploitation stage of their life cycle||225|
|4.7. Formation of technogenic geological bodies at carrying out underground nuclear explosions||239|
|4.8. Deep storehouses of hydrocarbonic fuel in thickness rocks||244|
|CHAPTER V. TECHNOGENIC BODIES FROM PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION WASTE||247|
|5.1. Processes of formation and the basic types||247|
|5.2. Technogenic bodies arising from city dumps||251|
|5.3. Technogenic bodies formed at dumps of industrial enterprises and disposal sites for dangerous wastes||267|
|5.4. Technogenic bodies shaped from wastes of the urbane development||273|
|5.5. Technogenic bodies from ash and slag waste||276|
|CHAPTER VI. TECHNOGENIC GEOLOGICAL BODIES ARISING AS RESULT OF TRANSFORMATION OF SUPERFICIAL AND SUBSURFACE LAYERS OF THE EARTH'S CRUST||281|
|6.1. Processes of formation and the basic types||281|
|6.2. Technogenic transformed of city grounds and soil-grounds (urbanozems)||295|
|6.3. Technogenesis of the earth's crust at purposeful change of the relief of the urbanized territories||310|
|6.4. Technogenic geological bodies formed at the erection of ground-based buildings and constructions||316|
|6.5. Technogenesis of lithosphere at the construction of underground transport communications (subway and tunnels)||330|
|6.6. Geological environment of industrial zones||338|
|6.7. Cultural layer (anthropogenic deposits)||344|
|6.8. Fields for the placement of urban wastewater and sludge sites of treatment facilities||350|
|6.9. Agro-industrial formations (geological bodies)||359|
|6.10.Defrosted technogenic geological bodies and technogenic crypegs||372|
|CHAPTER VII. COASTAL, ISLAND AND UNDERWATER TECHNOGENIC GEOLOGICAL BODIES||377|
|7.1. Processes of formation and the basic types||377|
|7.2. Technogenic bodies of artificial ground areas and artificial islands||384|
|7.3. Technogenic bodies of artificial reeves||390|
|7.4. Technogenic bodies of port and coastal-protection hydrotechnical structures, as well as artificial beaches||397|
|7.5. The underwater technogenic bodies formed at dredging||406|
|7.6. Formation of technogenic and natural-technogenic bottom sediment||411|
|7.7. Clogging of the bottom of water bodies objects||419|
|7.8. Underwater disposal of radioactive waste and objects, containing radioactive materials||425|
|7.9. Biotechnogenic bodies and structures formed from by-products of fish farming and aquaculture||429|
|CHAPTER VIII. TECHNOGENIC DEPOSITS||433|
|8.1. Processes of formation and the basic types||433|
|8.2. Technogenic deposits formed on the basis of waste mining, mountain-concentrating, metallurgical enterprises and heat power facilities||442|
|8.3. Extraction and use of landfill gas||446|
|CHAPTER IX. TECHNOGENIC GEOLOGICAL BODIES OF LITHOSPHERE AS ELEMENTS OF THE NATURAL-TECHNIC SYSTEMS||449|
|9.1. Formation of natural-technic systems during technogenesis of lithosphere||449|
|9.2. Changing of geoecological conditions upon occurrence technogenic bodies and at the its transformation||455|
|9.3. The socially-psychological importance of processes of technogenesis of lithosphere||460|
|9.4. Conceptually-methodological principles of formation of geological environment at creation operated natural-technic systems||470|
|DICTIONARY OF SPECIAL TERMS||554|